The Components of Identity and Access Management

Enterprise Security Magazine | Tuesday, January 11, 2022

IAM products offer IT managers with the tools and technologies necessary to manage user access to mission-critical data within a company.

FREMONT, CA: Identity and access management (IAM) in enterprise IT is concerned with defining and administering the roles and access privileges of particular network entities (people and devices) to various cloud and on-premises services. Customers, partners, and staff are considered users, whereas computers, cellphones, routers, servers, controllers, and sensors are considered devices. The primary goal of IAM systems is to provide a unique digital identity for each people or item. After establishing a digital identity, it must be maintained, adjusted, and monitored throughout the access lifecycle of each person or device.

IAM is comprised of numerous components. Among them are the following:

Database Management: The first step in implementing an IAM system is to manage a database containing all identities. Each user has a distinct identity that must be maintained to track user activity. Additionally, each device from which the user logs in and their location must be managed.

Procurement / Deprocurement: Provisioning or de-provisioning users is required based on the user's organizational status. Additionally, a user can log in via multiple devices. If a device is lost or damaged, it must be deleted from the database.

Verification: Authentication is the process of determining whether a user is a member of an organization. Various methods of authentication are used, including passwords, tokens, one-time passwords, and biometrics. Typically, IAM uses a multi-factor authentication method that combines multiple methods.

Approval: After gaining access to the system, a user must obtain authorization to access specific services, files, and folders. Permissions are assigned to users based on their job function inside the firm.

Permits: Once roles are defined, and access to files is granted, each user's permissions must be changed. The permissions can be edited, viewed, remarked, or shared according to the user's workflow. Clients, for example, may be granted only view permissions, while staff may be granted edit permissions.

Accountability: Additionally, reporting is a critical component of Identity and Access Management. The report may include information about the user's login history, privileges, and behavior. A thorough audit must be conducted to ascertain any strange behavior.